Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin.  It is an essential nutrient, meaning it is required from our diets because our bodies cannot make it. It is required to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA) which is needed for energy metabolism, as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, but are most predominant in meat, eggs, whole grains, wheat germ, bran, kidney, liver, heart, green vegetables, brewer's yeast, nuts, chicken, legumes, salmon, mushrooms, elderberries, and oranges. 

Deficiencies in pantothenic acid may include: 

  • Pupils are unusually large/dilated

  • Periods of deep depression

  • Burning sensation of hands or feet

  • Poor co-ordination

  • Light-headed or dizzy when sitting up or standing up

  • Diarrhea or constipation

  • Numbness or tingling in hands or feet

  • Joint pains

  • Muscle cramps

  • Rapid heartbeat on exertion

  • Irritability, agitation

  • Headaches

  • Insomnia, sleeplessness

  • Quarrelsome, hot temper

  • Inability to cope with stress

  • Restless legs, constant motion of legs at night

Supplementary range:   50 to 1400 mg daily.


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